The influence of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol has not been evaluated. About one-third of a haloperidol dose is excreted in urine, mostly as metabolites. Less than 3% of administered haloperidol is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Haloperidol metabolites are not considered to make a significant contribution to its activity, although for the reduced metabolite of haloperidol, back-conversion to haloperidol cannot be fully ruled out. Even though impairment of renal function is not expected to affect haloperidol elimination to a clinically relevant extent, caution is advised in patients with renal impairment, and especially those with severe impairment, due to the long half-life of haloperidol and its reduced metabolite, and the possibility of accumulation (see section ).
Due to the risk of unpleasant and sometimes lifelong extrapyramidal symptoms, newer antipsychotic medications than haloperidol have been discovered and formulated. Rapid dissociation of drugs from dopamine D2 receptors is a plausible explanation for the improved EPS profile of atypical antipsychotics such as Risperidone . This is also consistent with the theory of a lower affinity for D2 receptors for these drugs [ 12 ] . As mentioned above, haloperidol binds tightly to the dopamine receptor, potentiating the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms [ 4 ] , and therefore should only been used when necessary.