Testosterone and its derivate are made synthetically pharmaceutically as drugs for many different treatments. Pharmaceutical research of anabolic steroid is not focused a lot on muscle grow in healthy individuals but only in some aging related diseases like sarcopenia – the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength as a result of aging. Osteoporosis is one of the aging diseases that is also sometimes treated with anabolic steroids. In all these treatments, serious hormonal misbalance is highly possible, and a reaction of other, not targeted tissues. Some of the side effects using anabolic steroids can lead to liver conditions like peliosis hepatis – blood-filled cysts replacing healthy liver cells. This condition is often diagnosed late when it is already life threatening to treat liver failure present or intra-abdominal bleeding start.
To strengthen the anabolic properties of testosterone, more than 100 synthetic steroid derivatives have been described for human purposes. The anabolic effect promotes protein synthesis, muscle growth and erythropoiesis. In clinical practice, substances with anabolic effect are needed to overcome various catabolic states. However, none of these compounds are devoid of androgenicity. Androgenic and anabolic properties of anabolic steroids cannot be totally separated. Therefore, it is more appropriate to use the term anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS).